Tag Archives: usability

Standarder, guidelines, rekommendationer och lagar för användbarhet

usabilityDet finns många standarder, guidelines, rekommendationer och till och med lagar för att bygga användbara hemsidor, IT system och tjänster. Här är en sammanställning.

(Japp, den här artikeln är en blandning av svenska och engelska… eftersom det är copy paste från olika ställen… men jag tror du fixar att läsa det. 🙂 )

Definitions of usability

  • Accessibility (tillgänglighet)
    Usability of a product, service, environment or facility by people with the widest range of capabilities. [SOURCE: ISO 9241-171]
  • Usability (användbarhet)
    Extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. (Adapted from ISO 9241-11:1998.)
  • Context of use
    Users, tasks, equipment (hardware, software and materials), and the physical and social environments in which a product is used. [SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:1998]
  • Effectiveness (effektivitet)
    Accuracy and completeness with which users achieve specified goals. [SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:1998]
  • Efficiency (måluppfyllnad)
    Resources expended in relation to the accuracy and completeness with which users achieve goals. [SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:1998]
  • Satisfaction (användartillfredsställesle)
    Freedom from discomfort, and positive attitudes towards the use of the product. [SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:1998]

Vad är skillnaden mellan användbarhet och tillgänglighet?

Ett citat från “Att beställa användbara it system” beskriver detta bra.
http://www.anvandningsforum.se/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/att-bestalla-anvandbara-it-system.pdf
“För att få ett ytterligare perspektiv på frågan om hur begreppen “användbarhet” och “tillgänglighet” förhåller sig till varandra kan vi konstatera att användbarhet och tillgänglighet förutsätter varandra. En bra produkt för bred användning måste vara både användbar och tillgänglig. En stekpanna som steker jämnt och effektivt men som är mycket tung att hålla i handen är användbar men inte tillgänglig. En lätt stekpanna med ojämn botten är tillgänglig men inte användbar.“

Standarder

ISO 9241 201 – Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:9241:-210:ed-1:v1:en
Human-centred design is an approach to interactive systems development that aims to make systems usable and useful by focusing on the users, their needs and requirements, and by applying human factors/ergonomics, and usability knowledge and techniques. This approach enhances effectiveness and efficiency, improves human well-being, user satisfaction, accessibility and sustainability; and counteracts possible adverse effects of use on human health, safety and performance.
There is a substantial body of human factors/ergonomics and usability knowledge about how human-centred design can be organized and used effectively. This part of ISO 9241 aims to make this information available to help those responsible for managing hardware and software design and re-design processes to identify and plan effective and timely human-centred design activities.
The human-centred approach to design described in this part of ISO 9241 complements existing systems design approaches. It can be incorporated in approaches as diverse as object-oriented, waterfall and rapid application development.

ISO/IEC 40500:2012 – Information technology — W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
ISO/IEC 40500:2012 [Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0] covers a wide range of recommendations for making Web content more accessible. Following these guidelines will make content accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities, including blindness and low vision, deafness and hearing loss, learning disabilities, cognitive limitations, limited movement, speech disabilities, photo-sensitivity and combinations of these. Following these guidelines will also often make your Web content more usable to users in general.
WCAG 2.0 success criteria are written as testable statements that are not technology-specific. Guidance about satisfying the success criteria in specific technologies, as well as general information about interpreting the success criteria, is provided in separate documents.

ISO 9241 11 – Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 11: Guidance on usability
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:9241:-11:ed-1:v1:en
The objective of designing and evaluating visual display terminals for usability is to enable users to achieve goals and meet needs in a particular context of use. ISO 9241-11 explains the benefits of measuring usability in terms of user performance and satisfaction. These are measured by the extent to which the intended goals of use are achieved, the resources that have to be expended to achieve the intended goals, and the extent to which the user finds the use of the product acceptable.
ISO 9241-11 emphasizes that visual display terminal usability is dependent on the context of use and that the level of usability achieved will depend on the specific circumstances in which a product is used. The context of use consists of the users, tasks, equipment (hardware, software and materials), and the physical and social environments which may all influence the usability of a product in a work system. Measures of user performance and satisfaction assess the overall work system, and, when a product is the focus of concern, these measures provide information about the usability of that product in the particular context of use provided by the rest of the work system. The effects of changes in other components of the work system, such as the amount of user training, or the improvement of the lighting, can also be measured by user performance and satisfaction.

ISO 26000:2010 – Guidance on social responsibility
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:26000:ed-1:v1:en
ISO 26000:2010 provides guidance rather than requirements, it helps clarify what social responsibility is, helps businesses and organizations translate principles into effective actions and shares best practices relating to social responsibility, globally. It is aimed at all types of organizations regardless of their activity, size or location.
The standard was launched in 2010 following five years of negotiations between many different stakeholders across the world. Representatives from government, NGOs, industry, consumer groups and labour organizations around the world were involved in its development, which means it represents an international consensus.

ISO/TR 18529:2000 – Ergonomics — Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Human-centred lifecycle process descriptions
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:tr:18529:ed-1:v1:en
This document is intended to assist those involved in the design, use and assessment of lifecycle processes for systems, hardware and software. It presents a definition of the processes which comprise a human-centred approach and lists their components, outcomes and the information used and produced. The intention is to inform the users of process models who want to take account of human-centred processes in system, hardware and software lifecycles.

Europeisk standard EN 301 549 – Accessibility requirements suitable for public procurement of ICT products and services in Europe
http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/301500_301599/301549/01.01.01_60/en_301549v010101p.pdf
The primary objective of this proposal was to produce a European Standard (EN) (the present document) that sets out in a single source, detailed, practical and quantifiable functional accessibility requirements that take note of global initiatives in that field and which are applicable to all Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products and services identified in Phase I of the Mandate (TR 102 612 [i.9) and usable in public procurement.

Lagar

Diskriminieringslag SFS 2008:567
http://www.do.se/lag-och-ratt/diskrimineringslagen/
Lagen syftar till att motverka diskriminering och främja lika rättigheter och möjligheter oavsett kön, könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck, etnisk tillhörighet, religion eller annan trosuppfattning, funktionsnedsättning, sexuell läggning eller ålder.
Paragraf 4:3:
Bristande tillgänglighet: att en person med en funktionsnedsättning missgynnas genom att sådana åtgärder för tillgänglighet inte har vidtagits för att den personen ska komma i en jämförbar situation med personer utan denna funktionsnedsättning som är skäliga utifrån krav på tillgänglighet i lag och annan författning, och med hänsyn till

  • de ekonomiska och praktiska förutsättningarna,
  • varaktigheten och omfattningen av förhållandet eller kontakten mellan verksamhetsutövaren och den enskilde, samt
  • andra omständigheter av betydelse,

Guidelines

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG/
WC3 recommendations from 2008:
4 principles as a foundation for Web accessibility: perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust and 12 guidelines to make contact more accessible:

  1. Perceivable
    1.1 Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.
    1.2 Provide alternatives for time-based media.
    1.3 Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
    1.4 Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.
  2. Operable
    2.1 Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
    2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content.
    2.3 Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.
    2.4 Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.
  3. Understandable
    3.1 Make text content readable and understandable.
    3.2 Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.
    3.3 Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
  4. Robust
    4.1 Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.
    Success criterias measurements: A (lowest), AA, and AAA (highest)

10 golden rules in accessible Web design
From European Commission – Information providers guide – The EU Internet Handbook
http://ec.europa.eu/ipg/standards/accessibility/10_rules/index_en.htm
Check and apply 10 golden rules that solve 80% of the accessibility barriers when correctly applied:

  • Provide text alternatives
  • Structure contents
  • Avoid dependence on a single sense
  • Make all functionalities keyboard accessible
  • Give users enough time
  • Avoid interferences
  • Identify hyperlinks and contents
  • Make navigation interfaces consistent
  • Help users avoid mistakes
  • Ensure compatibility

Mätverktyg

UsersAward
http://tcodevelopment.se/usersaward/usersaward-sjalvtest/

UsersAward grundades 1998 av LO och TCO. Syftet med verksamheten är att bidra till mer användbar och effektivare IT i arbetslivet. Bland annat har UsersAward delat ut Användarnas IT-pris, certifierat mjukvara samt gjort ett flertal större kartläggningar av IT-användning inom bland annat vården, industrin och bank- och finanssektorn. Sedan 2013 drivs UsersAward av TCO Development.

SUS – System Usability Scale
A SUS test covers:
▪ Effectiveness (the ability of users to complete tasks).
▪ Efficiency (how difficult it was to perform the task).
▪ Satisfaction (how the users felt when performing the task).
Summary of SUS test in english:
https://malinfabbri.com/2013/03/26/sus-system-usability-scale-a-summary/
Sammanställning av SUS mätning på svenska:
https://malinfabbri.com/2013/03/26/sus-matning-test-av-anvandbarheten-av-ett-system-som-helhet/

Funka.nu
http://www.funka.com/om-funka/nyheter/sv/funka-utvecklar-matmetoden-for-eu-kommissionens-forslag-till-direktiv/
EEU-kommissionen har gett Funka i uppdrag att ta fram en europeisk metod för att mäta webbtillgänglighet inför det kommande direktivet. Projektet kallas SMART 2014/0061 Monitoring methodologies for web-accessibility in the European Union. I uppdraget ingår att kartlägga de nationella mätmetoder som finns i dag och granska dessa med jämförande tester. Dels för att undersöka metodernas kvalitet och tillförlitlighet, men också för att få fram ett slags minsta gemensamma nämnare. Beräknas vara klart 31 december 2015.

ISO/TS 20282-2:2013 – Usability of consumer products and products for public use
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=62733

ISO/TS 20282:2013 specifies a user-based summative test method for the measurement of the usability and/or accessibility of consumer products and products for public use (including walk-up-and-use products) for one or more specific user groups. This test method treats accessibility as a special case of usability where the users taking part in the test represent the extremes of the range of characteristics and capabilities within the general user population. When the test method refers to usability, the method can also be used to test accessibility (unless otherwise specified).

Rapportering av användartester

ISO/IEC 25062:2006 Software engineering — Software product Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) — Common Industry Format (CIF) for usability test reports
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=43046

ISO/IEC 25062:2006 provides a standard method for reporting usability test findings. The format is designed for reporting results of formal usability tests in which quantitative measurements were collected, and is particularly appropriate for summative/comparative testing. The CIF does not indicate how to perform a usability test but provides guidance on how to report the results of a usability test. The CIF targets two audiences: usability professionals and stakeholders in an organization. Stakeholders can use the usability data to help make informed decisions concerning the release of software products or the procurement of such products.
The format includes the following elements:

  • the description of the product,
  • the goals of the test,
  • the test participants
  • the tasks the users were asked to perform,
  • the experimental design of the test,
  • the method or process by which the test was conducted,
  • the usability measures and data collection methods, and
  • the numerical results.

Organisationer

SIS – Swedish Standards Institute
http://www.sis.se/en/
National and international standards. SIS Förlag AB, publishes and sells standards and manuals.

MTM – Myndigheten för tillgängliga medier
http://mtm.se/
Produktion och distribution av talböcker, punktskrifter och lättläst litteratur, tex böcker och tidningar.

Specialpedagogiska skolmyndigheten
https://www.spsm.se/sv/Stod-i-skolan/Tillganglighet/
Tillgänglighet i skolan

Extra läsning

Att beställa användbara IT system – Hur användarbehoven kan synliggöras tidigt i beställningen
https://www.anvandningsforum.se/rapport-att-bestalla-anvandbara-it-system/

WebAIM – Web accessibility in mind
About accessibility in regards to people with cognitive disabilities:
http://webaim.org/articles/cognitive/conceptualize/

UXbooth – What on Earth is ISO 9241?
A pretty “non academic” nice to read article about about iso standards:
http://www.uxbooth.com/articles/what-on-earth-is-iso-9241/

Lycka till nu med att göra bra tjänster!

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